Bigelow Overview The continent of Africa, the second largest on the globe, is bisected by the equator and bordered to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east by the Indian Ocean.
The committee's ranking Republican, William McCulloch R-OHgenerally supported expanding voting rights, but he opposed both the poll tax ban and the coverage formula, and he led opposition to the bill in committee. The committee eventually approved the bill on May 12, but it did not file its committee report until June 1.
The bill was next considered by the Rules Committeewhose chair, Howard W. Smith D-VAopposed the bill and delayed its consideration until June 24, when Celler initiated proceedings to have the bill discharged from committee. It would have allowed the Attorney General to appoint federal registrars after receiving 25 serious complaints of discrimination about a jurisdiction, and it would have imposed a nationwide ban on literacy tests for persons who could prove they attained a sixth-grade education.
However, support for H. Tuck D-VA publicly said he preferred H. His statement alienated most supporters of H. A major contention concerned the poll tax provisions; the Senate version allowed the Attorney General to sue states that used poll taxes to discriminate, while the House version outright banned all poll taxes.
Initially, the committee members were stalemated.
To help broker a compromise, Attorney General Katzenbach drafted legislative language explicitly asserting that poll taxes were unconstitutional and instructed the Department of Justice to sue the states that maintained poll taxes. To assuage concerns of liberal committee members that this provision was not strong enough, Katzenbach enlisted the help of Martin Luther King, Jr.
King's endorsement ended the stalemate, and on July 29, the conference committee reported its version out of committee. Bush signs amendments to the Act in July Congress enacted major amendments to the Act in, and Each amendment coincided with an impending expiration of some or all of the Act's special provisions.
Originally set to expire byCongress repeatedly reauthorized the special provisions in recognition of continuing voting discrimination. In andCongress also expanded the reach of the coverage formula by supplementing it with new and trigger dates.
Coverage was further enlarged in when Congress expanded the meaning of "tests or devices" to encompass any jurisdiction that provided English-only election information, such as ballots, if the jurisdiction had a single language minority group that constituted more than five percent of the jurisdiction's voting-age citizens.
These expansions brought numerous jurisdictions into coverage, including many outside of the South. For instance, Congress expanded the original ban on "tests or devices" to apply nationwide inand inCongress made the ban permanent.
Originally set to expire after 10 years, Congress reauthorized Section in for seven years, expanded and reauthorized it in for 15 years, and reauthorized it in for 25 years. Boldenwhich held that the general prohibition of voting discrimination prescribed in Section 2 prohibited only purposeful discrimination.
Congress responded by expanding Section 2 to explicitly ban any voting practice that had a discriminatory effect, regardless of whether the practice was enacted or operated for a discriminatory purpose.
Contents Edit [hide]*1 History Pre-Columbian European exploration and colonization Impact on Native populations Animal introductions. In covered jurisdictions, less than one-third (%) of the African American population was registered in ; by , this number increased to more than half (%): and a majority of African American residents became registered to vote in 9 of the 13 Southern states. Journals in JSTOR Date Range Aboriginal History.
The creation of this "results test" shifted the majority of vote dilution litigation brought under the Act from preclearance lawsuits to Section 2 lawsuits. Bossier Parish School Board which interpreted the Section 5 preclearance requirement to prohibit only voting changes that were enacted or maintained for a "retrogressive" discriminatory purpose instead of any discriminatory purpose, and Georgia v.
Ashcroft which established a broader test for determining whether a redistricting plan had an impermissible effect under Section 5 than assessing only whether a minority group could elect its preferred candidates.
Holderwhich struck down the coverage formula as unconstitutional. General provisions[ edit ] General prohibition of discriminatory voting laws[ edit ] Section 2 prohibits any jurisdiction from implementing a "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure Boldenthe Supreme Court held that as originally enacted inSection 2 simply restated the Fifteenth Amendment and thus prohibited only those voting laws that were intentionally enacted or maintained for a discriminatory purpose.
The history of official discrimination in the jurisdiction that affects the right to vote; The degree to which voting in the jurisdiction is racially polarized; The extent of the jurisdiction's use of majority vote requirements, unusually large electoral districtsprohibitions on bullet votingand other devices that tend to enhance the opportunity for voting discrimination; Whether minority candidates are denied access to the jurisdiction's candidate slating processes, if any; The extent to which the jurisdiction's minorities are discriminated against in socioeconomic areas, such as education, employment, and health; Whether overt or subtle racial appeals in campaigns exist; The extent to which minority candidates have won elections; The degree that elected officials are unresponsive to the concerns of the minority group; and Whether the policy justification for the challenged law is tenuous.Freedom Movement Bibliography.
See also: Books Written by Freedom Movement Veterans Book Titles Grouped by Subject Film, Videos & . The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal.
Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. Journals in JSTOR Date Range Aboriginal History. I have a Dream Excerpt: The Black Codes.
Blacks who fought for the South. Black Regiments in the Union Army. Slavery Made Legal. Emancipation Proclamation. Black History Month The Undefeated 44 most influential black Americans in history. 44 African Americans who shook up the world.
Racism against African-Americans: many of the Africans brought to America starting in the 17th century arrived as slaves, kidnapped from their homelands in various parts of Africa. A number of them were known to be royalty and literate.