She was a very intelligent, even precocious, child who received an intense education from her father, Timothy Fuller, learning Greek and Latin at a very early age. Her father was a prominent lawyer and later a Congressman. She attended several schools and continued to educate herself, learning German and Italian, and would soon do translations of Goethe and Bettina von Arnim.
Origins and Character What we now know as transcendentalism first arose among the liberal New England Congregationalists, who departed from orthodox Calvinism in two respects: Most of the Unitarians held that Jesus was in some way inferior to God the Father but still greater than human beings; a few followed the English Unitarian Joseph Priestley — in holding that Jesus was thoroughly human, although endowed with special authority.
The Unitarians' leading preacher, William Ellery Channing —portrayed orthodox Congregationalism as a religion of fear, and maintained that Jesus saved human beings from sin, not just from punishment. It was precisely on this ground, however, that the transcendentalists found fault with Unitarianism.
For although they admired Channing's idea that human beings can become more like God, they were persuaded by Hume that no empirical proof of religion could be satisfactory. In letters written in his freshman year at HarvardEmerson tried out Hume's skeptical arguments on his devout and respected Aunt Mary Moody Emerson, and in his journals of the early 's he discusses with approval Hume's Dialogues on Natural Religion and his underlying critique of necessary connection.
Skepticism about religion was also engendered by the publication of an English translation of F. Lukewhich introduced the idea that the Bible was a product of human history and culture. Equally important was the publication in —some fifty years after its initial appearance in Germany—of James Marsh's translation of Johann Gottfried von Herder's Spirit of Hebrew Poetry Herder blurred the lines between religious texts and humanly-produced poetry, casting doubt on the authority of the Bible, but also suggesting that texts with equal authority could still be written.
It was against this background that Emerson asked inin the first paragraph of Nature: An important source for the transcendentalists' knowledge of German philosophy was Frederic Henry Hedge — Hedge's father Levi Hedge, a Harvard professor of logic, sent him to preparatory school in Germany at the age of thirteen, after which he attended the Harvard Divinity School.
In particular, he explains Kant's idea of a Copernican Revolution in philosophy: Hedge organized what eventually became known as the Transcendental Club, by suggesting to Emerson in that they form a discussion group for disaffected young Unitarian clergy.
Hedge was a vocal opponent of slavery in the 's and a champion of women's rights in the 's, but he remained a Unitarian minister, and became a professor at the Harvard Divinity School. She finds an attractive contrast in the German tradition that begins with Leibniz and culminates in Kant, which asserts the power and authority of the mind.
James Marsh —a graduate of Andover and the president of the University of Vermont, was equally important for the emerging philosophy of transcendentalism. Marsh was convinced that German philosophy held the key to a reformed theology.
His American edition of Coleridge's Aids to Reflection introduced Coleridge's version—much indebted to Schelling—of Kantian terminology, terminology that runs throughout Emerson's early work.
In Nature, for example, Emerson writes: German philosophy and literature was also championed by Thomas Carlyle, whom Emerson met on his first trip to Europe in Piety towards nature was also a main theme of William Wordsworth, whose poetry was in vogue in America in the s.
Wordsworth's depiction of an active and powerful mind cohered with the shaping power of the mind that his collaborator in the Lyrical Ballads, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, traced to Kant. I am nothing; I see all; The currents of the universal being circulate through me.
Emerson rejects the Unitarian argument that miracles prove the truth of Christianity, not simply because the evidence is weak, but because proof of the sort they envision embodies a mistaken view of the nature of religion: An earlier transcendentalist scandal surrounded the publication of Amos Bronson Alcott's Conversations with Children Upon the Gospels He found anticipations of his views about a priori knowledge in the writings of Plato and Kant, and support in Coleridge's Aids to Reflection for the idea that idealism and materiality could be reconciled.
Alcott replaced the hard benches of the common schools with more comfortable furniture that he built himself, and left a central space in his classrooms for dancing. The Conversations with Children Upon the Gospels, based on a school Alcott and his assistant Elizabeth Peabody ran in Boston, argued that evidence for the truth of Christianity could be found in the unimpeded flow of children's thought.
What people particularly noticed about Alcott's book, however, were its frank discussions of conception, circumcision, and childbirth. Rather than gaining support for his school, the publication of the book caused many parents to withdraw their children from it, and the school—like many of Alcott's projects, failed.
Theodore Parker —60 was the son of a farmer who attended Harvard and became a Unitarian minister and accomplished linguist. He published a long critical essay on David Friedrich Strauss's Das Leben Jesu, and translated Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette's Introduction to the Old Testament, both of which cast doubt on the divine inspiration and single authorship of the Bible.
Parker exploited the similarities between science and religious doctrine to argue that although nature and religious truth are permanent, any merely human version of such truth is transient.
It is not a skeptical idealism, however, but an anti-skeptical idealism deriving from Kant: It is well known to most of my audience, that the Idealism of the present day acquired the name of Transcendental, from the use of that term by Immanuel Kant, of Konigsberg [sic], who replied to the skeptical philosophy of Locke, which insisted that there was nothing in the intellect which was not previously in the experience of the senses, by showing that there was a very important class of ideas, or imperative forms, which did not come by experience, but through which experience was acquired; that these were intuitions of the mind itself; and he denominated them Transcendental forms O, —2.
Emerson shows here a basic understanding of three Kantian claims, which can be traced throughout his philosophy: Emerson's idealism is not purely Kantian, however, for like Coleridge's it contains a strong admixture of Neoplatonism and post-Kantian idealism.
The Dial, Fuller, Thoreau The transcendentalists had several publishing outlets: The Dial —4 was a special case, for it was planned and instituted by the members of the Transcendental Club, with Margaret Fuller —50 as the first editor.
Emerson succeeded her for the magazine's last two years. Margaret Fuller was the daughter of a Massachusetts congressman who provided tutors for her in Latin, Greek, chemistry, philosophy and, later, German. Fuller abandoned her previously ornate and pretentious style, issuing pithy reviews and forthright criticisms: Fuller was in Europe from —9, sending back hundreds of pages for the Tribune.In her essay Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Margaret Fuller discusses the state of marriage in America during the s.
She is a victim of her own knowledge, and is . Margaret Fuller's Woman in the Nineteenth Century played a critical role in elevating and emphasizing women's intellectual capabilities. Fuller grew up in a unique household where she was given a. Women's history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so.
It includes the study of the history of the growth of woman's rights throughout recorded history, personal achievement over a period of time, the examination of individual and groups of women of historical significance, and the effect. Woman in the Nineteenth Century is a book by American journalist, editor, Analysis.
There are many transcendentalist ideas expressed in the essay based on Fuller's strong dedication to transcendentalism. One of the main ideas is the cultivation of the individual, which to Fuller included women as well as men. The Essential Margaret.
Margaret Fuller was born Sarah Margaret Fuller on May 23, in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts. She was a very intelligent, even precocious, child who received an intense education from her father, Timothy Fuller, learning Greek and Latin at a very early age. In she expanded her Dial essay and published Woman in the Nineteenth Century.
Margaret Fuller published “The Great Lawsuit,” which would form the core of Woman in the Nineteenth Century (), her major philosophical manifesto that argued despite the fluidity of masculinity and femininity, society deprived women of their self-reliance by treating them as dependents.
Women in the nineteenth century had it hard. That's what Margaret Fuller 's book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is all about. Ladies in the days of yore couldn't vote, they couldn't own property in the way that men could, and they were pretty much confined to being housewives for their entire lives. In her essay Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Margaret Fuller discusses the state of marriage in America during the s. She is a victim of her own knowledge, and is . Margaret Fuller published “The Great Lawsuit,” which would form the core of Woman in the Nineteenth Century (), her major philosophical manifesto that argued despite the fluidity of masculinity and femininity, society deprived women of their self-reliance by treating them as dependents. Emerson published several works of prose and.
Emerson published several works of prose and.