References and Further Reading 1. A Brief History of Thinking about Technology The origin of philosophy of technology can be placed in the second half of the 19th century. But this does not mean that philosophers before the midth century did not address questions that would today be thought of as belonging in the domain of philosophy of technology.
Anthropology Anthropology is the holistic "science of humans", a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social scienceshumanities and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains.
The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their historyliteraturemusicand artswith an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras.
The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology like some fields of history does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions.
Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences". The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem.
Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs.
It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology Archaeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifactsarchitecturebiofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes.
Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States,  while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history.
Classics[ edit ] Bust of Homerthe most famous Greek poet Classicsin the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquitynamely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures.
Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; however, its popularity declined during the 20th century. Nevertheless, the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong.
History[ edit ] History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of studyhistory refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humanssocietiesinstitutions, and any topic that has changed over time. Traditionally, the study of history has been considered a part of the humanities.
In modern academiahistory is occasionally classified as a social science. Linguistics and languages[ edit ] See also: All pages with a title containing language While the scientific study of language is known as linguistics and is generally considered a social science a natural science  or a cognitive science the study of languages is still central to the humanities.
A good deal of twentieth-century and twenty-first-century philosophy has been devoted to the analysis of language and to the question of whether, as Wittgenstein claimed, many of our philosophical confusions derive from the vocabulary we use; literary theory has explored the rhetorical, associative, and ordering features of language; and historical linguists have studied the development of languages across time.
Literature, covering a variety of uses of language including prose forms such as the novelpoetry and dramaalso lies at the heart of the modern humanities curriculum.I’m very pleased to announce that, starting today, I am joining the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics at the University of Illinois as the Social Media Manager for the farmdoc Project..
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