An apparatus for automatic determination of the cloud point temperature and the pour point temperature of a petroleum fraction, said apparatus comprising: The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said petroleum fraction sample is a middle distillate fuel or a dark oil. More particularly, the present invention relates to an apparatus and a method for automatically determining the cloud and pour point temperatures of a petroleum fraction containing dissolved wax.
The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the measuring space is formed by two hollow circular cones disposed to face each other flat base to base along a common bottom circumference such that each apex points outwards along a mutual parallel axis of said two cones according to an opposite direction.
The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the cones or ellipsoids forming the measuring space are similar to one another in terms of material composition, material properties, geometric congruency and geometric dimensions.
The invention concerns a method and an apparatus for determining the cloud point of oil. In the method of the invention the cloud point is determined from a turning point on the oil's cooling curve and in an apparatus wherein the oil sample is cooled in a measuring space shaped essentially as cones positioned opposite to one another.
Oil products are mixtures of many different components, and those properties of oil products which restrict their usability are often dependent on the properties of the individual components. One significant factor in particular is the solidification and crystallization of wax components of oil products in a cold climate.
In particular, this concerns diesel fuels and fuel oils made of petroleum as well as aviation petroleum. As the operating temperature of oil products drops and wax begins to crystallize in them, this will result in an accumulation of solid wax in various pans of the transportation equipment for these fluids, such as in filters, connection pieces, pumps and burners.
The pour point of an oil product indicates the lowest temperature at which the product in question will flow. Even before this pour point some oil components will crystallize and form a cloud in the product due, among other things, to crystallization of paraffine hydrocarbons.
The temperature at which this clouding begins is called the cloud point. The cloud point of oil is the temperature at which paraffin wax or other substances normally dissolved into the oil begin to separate and to form small crystals, thus bringing about clouding in the oil.
The components of an oil product can be influenced by adjusting Cloud point and pour point determination refining process, and refineries produce a wide range of oil products having different proportionings of wax, depending on the requirements of the season. For obtaining the desired properties in the refining process the various properties must be measured with sufficient precision.
In addition, for controlling the refining process successfully the method of measurement must be quick enough. The cloud point depends on the components of the oil product just like the other properties of the product: For this reason, the refining process aims at avoiding any splitting up of wax components as far as possible, whereby the yield of the total refining process will be higher.
The apparatus to be used in this method is shown in FIG. The determination is based on visual observation of the cloud point. Although the apparatus itself and its dimensions are exactly defined, there is much variation in the obtained measurement results between individual laboratories.
According to this study, much deviation occurred in the results of cloud point measurements: Thus, a problem with these methods is that the measurement results are too varying or the measuring methods are too slow for adjusting the process.
It has been a problem with known apparatuses that instead of visual observation an optical measuring method has been used in the determination, whereby the results have been greatly different and the moisture content, among other things, disturbs the determination.
Additionally, an optical measurement is not at all suitable for naturally opaque oil products. It is an objective of the present invention to achieve an improvement over known methods for determination of the cloud point of oil. A more specific objective of the invention has been to bring about a method and an apparatus for determination of the cloud point of oil so that the obtained measurement result can be used for controlling the oil quality or for controlling the production.
Another objective of the invention is to bring about a method and an apparatus for an exact, repeatable and prompt determination of the cloud point so that the obtained measurement result can be used for controlling the refining process.
It is an objective of the invention to bring about a method and an apparatus making possible a fully automatically operating analyzer for determination of the cloud point of oil. Another objective of the invention is to bring about a method and an apparatus for determination of the cloud point also in untransparent or opaque oil products.
The objectives mentioned above have been achieved through a new method and apparatus, the characteristic features of which are presented in the independent claims.
The invention is based on the unexpected finding that the cloud point of oil can be determined quickly and reliably by measuring the cooling curve of the oil and by establishing the cloud point from such a turning point on the cooling curve which is caused by crystallization of products in the oil when such a measuring vessel is used in the measuring apparatus wherein conduction of heat and convection are correctly related.
Another unexpected finding was that when such a measuring vessel is used in the measuring apparatus which is mainly shaped as two oppositely oriented hollow cones disposed to face each other flat base to base along a common bottom perimeter or circumference such that each apex points outwards along a mutual parallel axis of said two cones in an opposite direction, the cloud point could be measured considerably more exactly than with earlier methods and the drawbacks of methods of the prior an could be avoided.
Several advantages are obtained by using a measuring cell in accordance with the invention. A closed sample vessel can be used in it which is remarkably suitable for the conditions prevailing in the process industry. The measuring cell of the invention allows a very high degree of exactness in measurements and the measurement results are highly reproducible, making it suitable as a measurement message required for controlling the production.
The invention is suitable for use in a large temperature range and it can be used for measuring the properties of many kinds of oil refinery product, from fuel oil summer grades to arctic grades and aviation petroleum.
The method now developed allows a quick and reliable determination of the cloud point of oil products.three most commonly used test methods, these being: cloud point, cold filter plugging point and pour point. Cloud Point (CP) The cloud point is defined as the temperature at which wax crystals start to visibly form in the fuel and a transparent fuel becomes cloudy, thereof the name (ISO ).
CIMAC guideline, Cold flow properties, Cloud Point The solubility of ethoxylate surfactants is unusual because it decreases with increasing temperature. This is a result of the ambivalent nature of ethoxylate chains which tend to curl into hydrophilic coils at lower temperatures and when randomised by heat tend to present a more hydrophobic nature on average.
Methods of Test for Petroleum and Its Products (P: 10) Cloud Point and Pour Point Section 2 Determination of Pour Point A description is not available for . Jul 29, · An apparatus and a method for automatic determination of cloud point temperature and pour point temperature of a petroleum fraction.
The apparatus is comprised of a receptacle for holding a sample of the petroleum fraction, a light source, a light detector, heaters, coolers and a proximity sensor combined with a motion indicator to determine cloud and pour point temperature.
Pour and Cloud Point Apparatus is also applicable to the determination of oil pour point and turbidity point in accordance with the requirements specified in .
determination of Cloud point 1. Lab report of Energy Engineering lab Cloud point and pour point 1 Objective To Determine the Cloud and Pour Point Of Given Oil Sample Apparatus: 1.