History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: Critical thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past years. The term "critical thinking" has its roots in the mid-late 20th century.
We offer here overlapping definitions, together which form a substantive, transdisciplinary conception of critical thinking. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: It is thus to be contrasted with: Critical thinking varies according to the motivation underlying it.
As such it is typically intellectually flawed, however pragmatically successful it might be. When grounded in fairmindedness and intellectual integrity, it is typically of a higher order intellectually, though subject to the charge of "idealism" by those habituated to its selfish use.
Critical thinking of any kind is never universal in any individual; everyone is subject to episodes of undisciplined or irrational thought. Its quality is therefore typically a matter of degree and dependent on, among other things, the quality and depth of experience in a given domain of thinking or with respect to a particular class of questions.
No one is a critical thinker through-and-through, but only to such-and-such a degree, with such-and-such insights and blind spots, subject to such-and-such tendencies towards self-delusion.
For this reason, the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions is a life-long endeavor. Another Brief Conceptualization of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way.
People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically. They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked. They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric tendencies.
They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers — concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking. They work diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, intellectual civility, intellectual empathy, intellectual sense of justice and confidence in reason.
They realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always improve their reasoning abilities and they will at times fall prey to mistakes in reasoning, human irrationality, prejudices, biases, distortions, uncritically accepted social rules and taboos, self-interest, and vested interest.
They strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can and contribute to a more rational, civilized society.
At the same time, they recognize the complexities often inherent in doing so. They avoid thinking simplistically about complicated issues and strive to appropriately consider the rights and needs of relevant others.The Paul-Elder Framework for Critical Thinking is an internationally-recognized approach to explicit reasoning.
Becoming certified in the teaching of our framework provides unique benefits not available to educators, consultants, and trainers at large. and learn the skills of critical thinking Sponsored by The Foundation for Critical Thinking × Libraries.
Library of. Dr. Richard Paul was Director of Research and Professional Development at the Center for Critical Thinking, and was Chair of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking.
His body of work, including eight books and over articles, established him as an internationally-recognized. Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual rutadeltambor.comal thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
It presupposed assent to rigorous standards of. Dr.
Richard Paul is founder of the Foundation for Critical Thinking and director of research and professional development at the Center for Critical rutadeltambor.com is an internationally recognized authority on critical thinking, with nine books and more than articles on /5(18).
For Student Success and Career Development, or Critical Thinking courses. Written by two of the leading experts in the field, this book's approach to critical thinking is as a process for taking charge of and responsibility for one’s thinking.