Economic conditions[ edit ] Dow Jones Industrial Average — The bottom of 53 was recorded November 15,
Idea future leader of the Revolt, writes of receiving an unsigned written message on June 8, Fremont invites every freeman in the valley to come to his camp at the Butts [sic], immediately; and he hopes to stay the enemy and put a stop to his" — Here the sheet was folded and worn in-two, and no more is found.
It had been reported amongst the emigrants that the officer in charge of the herd had made statements threatening that the horses would be used by Castro to drive the foreigners out of California.
No two accounts agree, and it is impossible to determine the truth of their statements. They had traveled overnight from Napa Valley. Meeting no resistance, they approached Comandante Vallejo's home and pounded on his door. After a few minutes Vallejo opened the door dressed in his Mexican Army uniform.
Communication was not good until American Jacob P. Two other Californio officers and Leese joined the negotiations. The insurgents waiting outside sent elected "captains" John Grigsby and William Ide inside to speed the proceedings. The effect of Vallejo's hospitality in the form of wine and brandy for the negotiators and someone else's barrel of aguardiente for those outside is debatable.
However, when the agreement was presented to those outside they refused to endorse it. Rather than releasing the Mexican officers under parole they insisted they be held as hostages.
William Ide gave an impassioned speech urging the rebels to stay in Sonoma and start a new republic. We are robbers, or we must be conquerors!
Some young Californio vigilantes under Juan Padilla evaded the guards, aroused Vallejo and offered to help him escape. After the flag was raised Californios called the insurgents Los Osos The Bears and "Bear Flaggers" because of their flag and in derision of their often scruffy appearance.
The rebels embraced the expression, and their uprising, which they originally called the Popular Movement, became known as the Bear Flag Revolt. Ford was elected First Lieutenant of the company and obtained promises of obedience to orders. Swift and Samuel Gibson Sergeants. Ide wrote a proclamation announcing and explaining the reasons for the revolt during the night of June 14—15, below.
There were additional copies and some more moderate versions produced in both English and Spanish distributed around northern California through June The Commander in Chief of the Troops assembled at the Fortress of Sonoma gives his inviolable pledge to all persons in California not found under arms that they shall not be disturbed in their persons, their property or social relations one to another by men under his command.
He also solemnly declares his object to be First, to defend himself and companions in arms who were invited to this country by a promise of Lands on which to settle themselves and families who were also promised a "republican government," who, when having arrived in California were denied even the privilege of buying or renting Lands of their friends, who instead of being allowed to participate in or being protected by a "Republican Government" were oppressed by a "Military Despotism," who were even threatened, by "Proclamation" from the Chief Officer of the aforesaid Despotism, with extermination if they would not depart out of the Country, leaving all of their property, their arms and beasts of burden, and thus deprived of the means of flight or defense.
We were to be driven through deserts, inhabited by hostile Indians to certain destruction. To overthrow a Government which has seized upon the property of the Missions for its individual aggrandizement; which has ruined and shamefully oppressed the laboring people of California, by their enormous exactions on goods imported into this country; is the determined purpose of the brave men who are associated under his command.
He also solemnly declares his object in the Second place to be to invite all peaceable and good Citizens of California who are friendly to the maintenance of good order and equal rights and I do hereby invite them to repair to my camp at Sonoma without delay to assist us in establishing and perpetuating a "Republican Government" which shall secure to all: He further declares that he relies upon the rectitude of our intentions; the favor of Heaven and the bravery of those who are bound to and associated with him, by the principle of self preservation; by the love of truth; and by the hatred of tyranny for his hopes of success.
He further declares that he believes that a Government to be prosperous and happyfying [sic] in its tendency must originate with its people who are friendly to its existence. That its Citizens are its Guardians, its officers are its Servants, and its Glory their reward.
Ide, Head Quarters Sonoma, June 15, Need for gunpowder[ edit ] A major problem for the Bears in Sonoma was the lack of sufficient gunpowder to defend against the expected Mexican attack. William Todd was dispatched on Monday the fifteenth, with a letter [notes 2] to be delivered to the USS Portsmouth telling of the events in Sonoma and describing themselves as "fellow country men".
Todd, having been instructed not to repeat any of the requests in the letter refers to their need for gunpowderdisregarded that and voiced the request for gunpowder.San Pico S New Stock Market “The history of the New York Stock Exchange begins with the signing of the Buttonwood Agreement by twenty-four New York City stockbrokers and merchants on May 17, , outside at 68 Wall Street under a Buttonwood tree.”.
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