February 4, Aptowicz contributed this exclusive article to Live Science's Expert Voices: The enormous arena was empty, save for the seesaws and the dozens of condemned criminals who sat naked upon them, hands tied behind their backs. Unfamiliar with the recently invented contraptions known as petaurua, the men tested the seesaws uneasily.
Early years[ edit ] Publius Cornelius Scipio was born by Caesarean section  into the Scipio branch of the gens Cornelia. Scipio's great-grandfather, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatusand grandfather Lucius Cornelius Scipiohad both been consuls and censors.
He was the eldest son of the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio by his wife Pomponiadaughter of plebeian consul Manius Pomponius Matho.
Early military service[ edit ] Scipio joined the Roman struggle against Carthage in the first year of Second Punic War when his father was consul. During the Battle of Ticinushe saved his father's life by "charging the encircling force alone with reckless daring.
After the battle, with the other consul surviving elsewhere, Scipio and Appius Claudius Pulcheras military tribunestook charge of some 10, survivors. On hearing that Lucius Caecilius Metellus and other young nobles were planning to go overseas to serve some king, Scipio stormed into the meeting, and at sword-point, forced all present to swear that they would not abandon Rome.
Scipio, already known for his The colosseum and gladiators essay and patriotism, was elected unanimously and the Tribunes abandoned their opposition.
His cousin also won the election. At the election of a new proconsul for the command of the new army which the Romans resolved to send to HispaniaScipio was the only man brave enough to ask for this position, no other candidates wanting the responsibility, considering it a death sentence.
Hannibal's brothers Hasdrubal and Magoand Hasdrubal Gisco were the generals of the Carthaginian forces in Hispania, and Rome was aided by the inability of these three figures to act in concert. The Carthaginians were also preoccupied with revolts in Africa.
Scipio landed at the mouth of the Ebro and was able to surprise and capture Carthago Nova New Carthagethe headquarters of the Carthaginian power in Hispania. He obtained a rich cache of war stores and supplies and an excellent harbour and base of operations.
Scipio's humanitarian conduct toward prisoners and hostages in Hispania helped in portraying the Romans as liberators as opposed to conquerors. Livy tells the story of his troops capturing a beautiful woman, whom they offered to Scipio as a prize of war.
Scipio was astonished by her beauty but discovered that the woman was betrothed to a Celtiberian chieftain named Allucius. This humanitarian act encouraged local chieftains to both supply and reinforce Scipio's small army.
Scipio feared that the armies of Mago and Gisco would enter the field and surround his small army. Scipio's objective was, therefore, to quickly eliminate one of the armies to give him the luxury of dealing with the other two piecemeal.
The battle was decided by a determined Roman infantry charge up the centre of the Carthaginian position. Roman losses are uncertain but may have been considerable in light of an effort by the infantry to scale an elevation defended by Carthaginian light infantry. Scipio then orchestrated a frontal attack by the rest of his infantry to draw out the remainder of the Carthaginian forces.
Hasdrubal had not noticed Scipio's hidden reserves of cavalry moving behind enemy lines, and a Roman cavalry charge created a double envelopment on either flank led by cavalry commander Gaius Laelius and Scipio himself. This broke the back of Hasdrubal's army and routed his forces—an impressive feat for the young Roman versus the veteran Carthaginian general.
Despite a Roman victory, Scipio was unable to hinder the Carthaginian march to Italy. Much historical criticism has been levelled at his inability to effectively pursue Hasdrubal, who would eventually cross the Alps only to be defeated by Gaius Claudius Nero at the Battle of the Metaurus.
One popular theory for Scipio's failure to pursue Hasdrubal is that Scipio merely wanted the glory of securing Hispania, and an extended mountain campaign would have endangered that.
Others cite the Roman soldiers' appetite for plunder as preventing him from rallying in pursuit. The most probable explanation from a strategic standpoint is Scipio's unwillingness to risk being trapped between Hasdrubal's army on one side and one or both of Gisgo's and Mago's armies, both of superior numerical strength.
Mere days after Hasdrubal's defeat, Mago and Gisgo were able to converge in front of the Roman positions, bringing into question what would have happened had Scipio pursued Hasdrubal. After his rapid success in conquering Hispania, and with the idea of striking a blow at Carthage in AfricaScipio paid a short visit to the Numidian princes Syphax and Massinissa.
Numidia was of vital importance to Carthage, supplying both mercenaries and allied forces. In addition to supplying the Numidian cavalry on which see the Battle of CannaeNumidia operated as a buffer for vulnerable Carthage.
Scipio managed to receive support from both Syphax and Massinissa. Syphax later changed his mind, married the beautiful Carthaginian noblewoman Sophonisbadaughter of Hasdrubal the son of Gisco, and fought alongside his Carthaginian in-laws against Massinissa and Scipio in Africa.
On his return to Hispania, Scipio had to quell a mutiny at Sucro which had broken out among his troops. Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal had meanwhile marched for Italy, and in BC Scipio himself, having secured the Roman occupation of Hispania by the capture of Gadesgave up his command and returned to Rome.
A Carthaginian coin possibly depicting Hannibal as Hercules i. Heracles In BC, Scipio was unanimously elected to consulship at the age of Scipio intended to go to Africabut due to the envy of others in the Senate, he was not given any additional troops beyond the Sicilian garrison.
Despite this resistance, Scipio gathered resources from clients and supporters in Rome and among the Italian communities; this allowed him to muster a volunteer force of 30 warships and men.In this essay, I will be writing about the great Colosseum of Rome and what was held inside to give the citizens of Rome some entertainment.
The Romans had many choices of what to do during their spare time, such as ball games, board games, and watching gladiatorial fights in the Colosseum; this was the most popular type of entertainment. Some of the Famous people in History - Immanuel was 79 years old when he died and he lived in modern times.
Kant was a German philosopher who is widely known to be the main person that started modern philosophy. Roman bronze bust of Scipio Africanus the Elder from the National Archaeological Museum, Naples (Inv.
), dated mid-first century BC Excavated from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum by Karl Jakob Weber, Howards End. Roger Ebert on James Ivory's "Howards End". Ballad of Narayama "The Ballad of Narayama" is a Japanese film of great beauty and elegant artifice, telling a story of startling cruelty.
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On this tour, your guide will resurrect the grandeur of ancient Rome's Colosseum, Forum, Pantheon, and nearby Ostia Antica.